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hardware notes class 20th
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    hardware notes class 20th

    Chapter 18. Overclocking

    The Pentium II was subjected to a lot of overclocking. It was found that many of Intel’s CPU’s could be clocked at a higher factor than they were designed for.
    If you had a 233 MHz Pentium II, you could set up the motherboard to, for example, run at 4.5 x 66 MHz, so that the processor ran at 300 MHz. I tried it myself for a while, it worked well. At a factor of 5 it didn’t work, but at factor of 4.5 it functioned superbly.

    System bus
    Internal clock
    66 MHz
    100 MHz
    Pentium MMX
    66 MHz
    166 MHz
    Pentium II
    66 MHz
    300 MHz
    Pentium II
    100 MHz
    600 MHz
    100 MHz
    800 MHz
    Pentium III
    133 MHz
    1200 MHz
    133 MHz x 2
    1733 MHz
    166 MHz x 2
    2167 MHz
    Pentium 4
    100 MHz x 4
    2200 MHz
    Pentium 4
    133 MHz x 4
    3066 MHz
    Pentium 4
    200 MHz x 4
    3600 MHz
    Overclocking the system bus

    Another method of overclocking was to turn up the system bus clock frequency. In the early versions of the Pentium II, the system bus was at 66 MHz, which suited the type of RAM used at that time.
    You could increase the bus speed, for example to 68 or 75 MHz, depending on how fast your RAM was. This type of tuning makes both the CPU and RAM faster, since it is the actual system clock speed which is increased.
    The disadvantage is that the system clock in these motherboard architectures also controls the I/O bus, which runs synchronously with the system bus. PCI bus devices (which we will come to in a later chapter) cannot handle being overclocked very much; otherwise faults can occur, for example in reading from the hard disk.
    Overclocking typically requires a higher voltage for the CPU, and most motherboards can be set up to supply this:
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    Figur 123. Setting the CPU voltage using the motherboard’s Setup program. Many still use the same kind of overclocking on the Athlon XP and Pentium 4. The system clock has to be able to be adjusted in increments, which it can on many motherboards.
    hardware notes class 20th-2.jpgFigur 124. A gigantic cooler with two fans and pure silver contact surfaces. Silverado, a German product which is used for overclocking CPU’s. Example using the Pentium 4

    A Pentium 4 processor is designed for a system clock of 200 MHz. If you can have a 3200 MHz model with a 200 MHz system bus, it can theoretically be clocked up to 4000 MHz by turning up the system clock. However, the processor needs a very powerful cooling system to operate at the increased frequencies:
    System clock
    CPU clock
    200 MHz
    3200 MHz
    230 MHz
    3700 MHz
    250 MHz
    4000 MHz

    Fig. 125. Overclocking a Pentium 4 processor.
    The manufacturers, Intel and AMD, don’t like people overclocking their CPU’s. They have sometimes attempted to prevent this by building a lock into the processors, so that the processor can only work at a specific clock frequency. In other cases the CPU’s can be overclocked. In any case, you shouldn’t expect your warranty to apply if you play around with overclocking.


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