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    Default Reference To Context from Poem

    Reference To Context from Poem




    Reference To Context from Poem

    The Man of Life Upright
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 1
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem entitled The Man of Life Upright, written by Thomas Campion.
    About the poet

    Thomas Campion was a poet who led English poetry and music to supreme heights. He used the normal forms of simultaneous verses with spectacular skill and modesty. The most admirable pieces of his poetry are those sonnets, which he set to his own music.
    About the Poem

    The Man of Life Upright is a sermonic piece of writing that sheds lights on the prominent visages of the character of a person who leads a life of honour, nobility and righteousness. He possesses a pure heart clear from sinful thoughts and wicked ideas. He never deviates from the path of honesty and never falls prey to the false pride. He is self-sufficient and does not fall into the trap of deceptive hopes. He is courageous and confident enough to encounter all the miseries.
    Lines

    The man of life upright --------- Or thought of vanity
    Explanation

    In this stanza the poet says that an upright man leads an honourable and honest life. His mind is free from evil thoughts and his heart is free from ill-feelings and false hopes. He is an humble person and has no thought of vanity. He has peace of mind and peace of heart. He is not a discontented person because

    “Discontent is the want of self-reliance; it is infirmity of will.”

    - Emerson

    An upright man never lacks in self-reliance. Therefore, he leads a bappy and contented life. His life is simple because he is not an ambitious person. That is why he leads a pious life and never thinks of committing crimes and sins.

    In other words the poet wants to convince us that honesty is the best policy and if we want to lead a pleasant and contented life, we must not deviate from the path of honesty. No doubt honesty gives us real and spiritual pleasure.
    Lines

    The man whose silent days --------- Nor sorrow discontent:
    Explanation

    An honest man leads a peaceful and contented life and does not harm anyone. He is not an ambitious person. Therefore, he does not cherish false hopes and that is why false hopes can’t deceive him. As he has got no high expectation in life, so sorrow and grief cannot discontent or dishearten him. He does not give pain to others; he does not torture and agonize others. He remains happy because of the fact that he leads a life free from dishonest deeds and free from sins.

    In other words, the poet wants to convince us that we must not cherish false hopes and must not torture others if we want to spend a peaceful, contented and care-free life.
    Lines

    The man needs neither towers--------From thunder’s violence
    Explanation

    An upright man leads a pious life. So, he is not afraid of anyone. Honesty makes a person bold and courageous. That is why he neither needs any fortress or any armour to defend him. He does not feel the need of secret vaults to protect himself from any kind of danger. Thus an honest man leads a carefree and peaceful life.

    In other words, the poet wants to say that if we follow the path of honesty, we need not to be afraid of any one because of honesty is the best weapon which can provide us protection against all kinds of evils.
    Lines

    He only can behold -------------- And terrors of skies
    Explanation

    In these lines, the poet says that only an upright man can face the difficulties and hardships of life, boldly and courageously. It is rightly said:

    “An honest man possesses a stout heart.”

    He is not afraid of anyone and is prepared to face all kinds of dangers. He can face the horrors and terrors of the skies fearlessly because of the fact that such a person is not afraid of death. Fear of death makes a person coward and he cannot face any one and he cannot tackle any difficult situation with confidence.

    In this thought-provoking stanza the poet wants to say that honesty makes a person brave and bold. He has peace of mind and peace of heart. Therefore, he can deliberate and plan to tackle any difficult situation. He does not tremble and shiver in the face of hardships and clematis. No doubt honesty gives spiritual confidence and strength to an honest and upright man. So, for the attainment of spiritual confidence and strength it is imperative that we must follow the path of honesty.
    Lines

    Thus, scorning all the cares ----------------- His wisdom heavenly things,
    Explanation

    An honest man is spiritually happy. So, he hates all those cares and worries which the fate or fortune brings. Difficulties and hardships there in the life of an honest man but he does not care as he believes that these difficulties and hardships will come to an end with the passage of time. He bears the troubles and misfortunes patiently. He looks upon the heaven for guidance help. He makes the heaven his book and learns the lesson of wisdom from heavenly things. Thus an honest man spend his time in useful activities.

    In other words the poet wants to convince us that only an hones man can adopt a positive and optimistic attitude towards life. As he possesses spiritual confidence and strength. He knows that cares and worries are the parts of life and one must not be disappointed and disheartened by them. Beyond any shadow of doubt the life of an honest man is enviable and we must endeavour to lead an honest life.
    Lines

    Good thoughts his only friends -------- And quite pilgrimage.
    Explanation

    An honest man looks upon the world as an inn where he has come into the world for a brief sojourn and to spend a life free from sins. His pious and sinless life is his wealth. He strongly believes that he has come into this world for the adoration of God Almighty and to lead a sinless life. He believes that this world is a Vanity Fair. Therefore, he is never deceived by the glamour of the world and he never deviates from the path of honesty, integrity, and righteousness.

    In this stanza the poet stresses moral values and has drawn the attention of the people to the realities of the world. By the describing the qualities of an honest man he wants to convince the people that honesty is the best policy and those who are honest and upright have peace of mind and peace of heart. There is no vacuum in the life an honest man. He has spiritual pleasure, which is the asset of life.
    Music When Soft Voices Die
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 2
    Reference

    This stanza has been extracted from the poem entitled Music when Soft Voices Die, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley.
    About the Poet

    P.B Shelley is one of the most famous poets of English Literature. He is an idealist and a dreamer. He exists in the world of ideas and visions which seem to him more practicable and real than the so called realities of this world.
    About the Poem

    In this short lyric, Shelley expresses his views about beauty, love and separation. He says that beauty is immortal and love is unchangeable. It does not change with the passage of time and with the change of circumstances. It does not die. Separation does not kill true love.
    Lines

    Music, when soft voices die-------------Live within the sense they quicken.
    Explanation

    The poet says that when sweet voices fade away, they echo in our memory. Beautiful and mellifluous songs are unforgettable and immortal. Similarly when the sweet-smelling lovely flowers of violets wither away, their pleasant smell can still be enjoyed in the memory. Our minds are refreshed when we remember the sweet fragrance of violets.

    In other words, the poet wants to say that if a thing loses its physical beauty, it can be revived in the imagination. Thus this short lyric reflects the fundamental importance of imagination in human life.

    “A thing of beauty is joy for ever.”

    Shelley emphasizes the same idea in these lines containing the depth of meaning and philosophical approach to love, beauty, separation and imagination. The poet by giving the example of enchanting music an fragrant violets expresses this idea that a beautifule thing never dies. It has everlasting effect on the mind of a man.
    Lines

    Rose leaves, when the rose is dead------------Love itself shall slumber on.
    Explanation

    Shelley believes in the Platonic love, which shuns fulfillment. It is a desire that always remains unsatisfied. In love Shelley must find something ideal, something ever to aspire after, something ever to look forward to. It is in the expectation of fulfillment that his happiness lies. H has expressed the Platonic conception of love in this beautiful stanza.

    The poet says that when rose petals wither away, they do not become useless. They retain their sweet smell even after withering away. That is why they are used for decorating the beloved’s bed. The poets’s beloved has been separated from him. She is not with him, but her thoughts are with him and his love will sleep on her thoughts.

    In other words the poet wants to say that it does not matter if the sweet heart is physically away from him because spiritually she is with him. He is not alone as in his imagination he finds his beloved very close to him. Separation has sharpened love but he is free from mental agony as her sweet thoughts always comfort and soothes him. His love is passionate and profound and it will not change with the passage of time. He cannot forget his beloved and will continue to love her in his imagination as true love does not die and transcends all barriers and surmount all obstacles. Absence sharpens love; distances intensifies love but imagination brings the beloved so close to the lover that distances come to end and the two separated souls are united.

    Samson Agonistes
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 3
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation are an extract from Samson Agonistes written by John Milton.
    About the Poet

    John Milton is regarded as one of the most famous poets of English Literature. His masterpiece Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, Samson Agonistes earned him fame and honour. His individual style has a touch of sublimity and majesty which is quite appropriate to his noble and powerful ideas.
    About the Poem

    Samson Agonistes is an adaptation of the Greek drama form in blank verse, which recounts the tragedy of Samson in his blindness beset by enemies. This hero performed the decisive role in crushing the philistines who were the deadly enemies of his race. Samson, too got killed in that disaster but his heroic act saved his tribesman from the deadly enemy. By virtue of his glorious deed, his named earned eternity. It is rightly said:

    “Those who die for their nation live for ever.”
    Lines

    He patient, but undaunted, where they led him---------None daring to appear antagonist.
    Explanation

    The poet tells us in these lines how Samson was brought in the assembly hall as the enemy had blinded him. A guide led him to the hall. He walked patiently but heartlessly to the place where the guide led him. Then he was called upon to show the feats of skill. He performed could be done by a blind man. He heaved, pulled, drew and broke things with great strength and none have the courage to find faults with him. He performed everything in such a wonderful way that every body praised him for his unbelievable strength. His demonstrations were simply unbelievable. Nobody dared to appear as his challenger in similar feats of strength.
    Lines

    At length for intermission sake they led him ----------That to the arched roof gave main support
    Explanation

    Here we are told how Samson reached near the big pillars. At last the show was over and the interval was announced. Samson was led by his guide to the pillars in order to give him some recess. Now as the people who stood near him heard Samson requested his guide to let him stand against the strong pillars with the both his hands on them. He told his guide that he wanted to do so simply because he wanted to have some rest. These pillars give a support to the arched roof where the nobility of Philistine was sitting.
    Lines

    He unsuspicious led him; which when Samson-----------Or some great matter in his mind revolved
    Explanation

    In these lines we are told that the guide did not feel that there was anything wrong in. So, the guide accepted his request and let him rest against the pillars. Now Samson felt the pillars in his arms for Philistines had blinded him. Then he stood silent for some time, with his head bowed and his eyes fixed on the ground. He behaved as if he was going to offer his prayer, or wanted to reach a final decision on some matter on some matter of great importance. It appeared as if some important matter was revolving in his mind for he is standing seriously with his head bowed and eyes on the ground.
    Lines

    At last, with head erect thus cried aloud--------As with amaze shall strike all who behold.’
    Explanation

    The poet tells us in these lines how Samson, addressed the people gathered there. He raised his head and in a loud voice he told them that till now he had obeyed them most obediently, showed some feats of strength and had never disobeyed their commands. Now he said, he wanted to show them some feats of strength of his own accord. These things would amaze all the holder and every body would be amazed who saw it. Actually Samson wanted to take them unawares. Therefore, he told them in a friendly way that he was going to show them some more wonderful feats of strength.
    Lines

    This uttered, straining all his nerves, he bowed -------- Upon the heads of all who sat beneath,
    Explanation

    In these lines we are told how Samson pulled down the pillars upon the heads of his enemies. Samson applied his force to the pillars, which trembled just as mountains do against the fury of winds and water. He shook them in opposite directions, till the roof came down with a thundering noise. Thus, all those lords and captains who sat under the roof were crushed to death. Of course Samson too died, but in this way he took a revenge on his enemies. The two heavy pillars who gave support to the whole building were shaken with great force by Samson and after their motion of to and fro they came down. Samson succeeded in achieving his goal i.e to crush his enemies for it he use his full strength to pull the pillars down on the heads of his enemies. He shook the pillars again and again till they came down.
    Lines

    Lords, ladies, captains, councellors or priests --------- Pulled down the same destruction on himself.
    Explanation

    The poet tells us in these lines that among the people who were crushed to death under the roof were lords, ladies, councellors and priests of the country. The people had assembled there from far and near to celebrate the feast. As Samson too was among them, he also met the same fate and was crushed to death. But, by sacrificing his own life, he killed the best people of the enemy nation. The people who killed were choicest nobility not only of this one city but also of all the Philistinian cities.
    An Essay on Man
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 4
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem entitled An Essay on Man, written by Alexander Pope.
    About the Poet

    Alexander Pope occupies a very prominent position in the domain of English Literature. He was a representative poet of the 8th century also known as the Augustian age, the age of satire and heroic couplets.
    About the Poem

    An Essay on Man is a philosophical, didactic, thought-provoking and soul-stirring poem. It was addressed by Pope to Bolingbroke. At the beginning of the poem he says:

    “The proper study of mankind is man.”

    Pope in this poem is not the satirist but a moralist who has chosen his object to vindicate the ways of God to man. He thus gives his philosophical reflection on the fate and fortune of man, the nature and importance of hope and the cause of the restlessness of human soul in this world.
    Lines

    Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate ------ Or who could suffer being here below?
    Explanation

    In the opening lines of the poem, Pope has presented the benign care and kindness displayed by God’s Providence to his creatures by making them ignorant to their future fate.

    He says that God has made his Creatures blind to their future. They know very little or nothing of what is going to happen to them. They don’t know what sorrows or sufferings lie in store for them. They know only about their present.

    The poet says that God has done this according to a specific system. For instance, angels being spiritual beings know more than man does, man being superior to animals knows more than they do and animals being at the bottom of the hierarchy know nothing about their future.

    Poet justifies this policy of the Providence as being kind and beneficial. This is intended to keep the cycle of life going. Since life on this planet is full of sorrows, sufferings, disappointments, disease and death. We would have tried to make an end to our life before the fall of the future calamity if we had the slightest knowledge of our future.

    The poet wants to say that blindness to the future is a blessing kindly given to by God Almighty and it enables us to face the hard realities of life with undying courage, hope and determination.

    “Ignorance of future ills is a more useful thing than knowledge.”

    - Cicero
    Lines

    Oh blindness to the future! Kindly given ----------- And now a bubble burst, and now a world.
    Explanation

    In these lines the poet tells us how our ignorance to the future becomes a great blessing. He thinks that we are kept ignorant of our future simply because God wanted each of us to complete the work fixed for him. Man is ignorant about the days a head, so that he may complete the cycle of his life according to the wishes of God. God’s knowledge is so wide that the looks at a dying hero as accurately as he does at a small sparrow. Since God is maker, moulder and creator of this Universe. He looks at all the creatures equally. In his eyes making no difference between the creatures. He watches the actions of all the human beings, seeing a sparrow and a hero. He knows about the ruin of a planetary system as well as about the ruin of the smallest particle. It also means that death of small or a great man, the least particle or any other system does not impress God at all. God watches the astronomical systems of the Universe. Even the bursting of a bubble or the ruin of a world, both have equal importance for God. In this stanza, the poet gives very good example, to clear the fact that all the things are equal in the eyes of God whether it is an hero or an ordinary thing like sparrow all have to complete their life cycles as prescribed to them by the Almighty God.
    Lines

    “Hope humbly then, with trembling pinion soar --------- But gives that hope to be thy blessing now.
    Explanation

    In these lines, Pope, the moral pedagogue, is preaching the principle of humility and modesty in our life of this world.

    “Greater are those who show humility.”

    - Blake

    He says that God has very kindly made us blind to our fate and fortune. We don’t know what sorrows and sufferings and joys and happiness lie ahead in store for us. Therefore, it is only prudent and wise to live simply with humble hopes and modest desires. We should try to rise but slowly and gradually. We should learn from the bird, which soars, but slowly balancing its wings at every step as though the bird is afraid of falling down. Similarly, we human beings should always keep death before us. Death teaches us that this world is just like an inn where we have come for a brief sojourn. Our life is just like a bubble blown up in the air. Death reveals to us the secrets of the next world and mystery of life hereafter. It also teaches us the lesson of parity and equality by treating all living beings alike.

    We should also love and pray God for his blessings. God does not tell us what bliss he is going to grant us in future, But God has blessed us with hope which is really a precious gift of God. It is hope which keeps us happy and gives us comfort and solace when we are in the grip of difficulties and hardships. Thus we can say that Hope is our best companion because:

    “Hope is the best armour against fate.”
    Lines

    Hope springs eternal in the human breast ----------- Rests and expatiates in a life to come
    Explanation

    “Hopes makes future bright.”

    - Lowell

    In these oft quoted lines, the poet presents an altruism about the fate of human beings that nobody is happy but every body hopes to be happy.

    The poet says that instead of telling us about or fate, God gives us hope, which is really a precious gift of God. He says that hope never deserts human beings. It remains alive and active in human heart forever. Hope keeps the man happy. He forgets the difficulties and hardships of the present and is overjoyed when he thinks of the future bliss. Rossy picture of the future emerges before his eyes and he forgets grieves of the present. Alexander Pope wants to say that without hope man’s life would have been meaning less and colourless and would have not struggled ceaselessly and relentlessly for the achievements of his objectives.

    About human soul, the poet remarks that it never enjoys a moment of real joy and peace in this world. It is constantly restless, disturbed and far from its real and eternal home. The eternal abode of human soul is heaven. It aspires to liberate itself from the material cage of human body and go back to its original and final home. Human soul hopes to live there permantly enjoying peace, comfort, freedom and happiness.

    Therefore, Pope says that man should lead a pious, virtuous and sinless life and perform good and noble deeds for a better after death.

    “Hope, like the gleaming taper’s light, adorns and cheers our body.”

    - Oliver Goldsmith
    Ulysses
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 5
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled Ulysses, composed by Lord Alfred Tennyson.
    About the Poet

    Lord Alfred Tennyson occupies a very important and prominent position in the domain of English Literature. He is the representative poet of Victorian era. He is a prolific poet and has composed a number of poems. Tennyson’s poetry is rich in imagery as that of keats but it lacks the romantic fine of Words Worth and Coleridge.
    About the Poem

    Ulysses is a long, magnificent, symbolical and moral boosting poem. The poem is written in the dramatic monologues of the powerful blank verse and tells the story of the most prudent and bravest of the Greek heroes, Ulysses of Homer’s Odyssey. He is the symbol of adventurous spirit, indomitable courage, inexhaustible zeal; unflinching faith; unshakable determination and unquenchable thirst for knowledge. Ulysses wants to set out on a journey of discovery because he believes that it is not too late to find a New World.
    Lines

    Souls that have toil’d and wrought ------------ Free haerts, free foreheads – you and I are old;
    Explanation

    Ulysses is addressing his fallow sailors; those brave ones who worked hard and have accomplished treat deeds in the past happily and even beard the hardships of rough season and sunshine. He further plays attribute on them that, they are free even with noble souls. Our old ages have stid to keep us away from any long journey to explore thus world or to keep glory up. He is addressing those mariners who had all those qualities and he is converging them to join him in his last journey as they did in the past by giving them the few best example and glories of their pride.
    Lines

    Old age hath yet his honour and his toil ----------- No unbecoming men that strove with gods.
    Explanation

    In these lines we are told how Ulysses inspired his men. He told them that no doubt old age brings its labours and honours with it. But we should do something remarkable before our death, benefiting great heroes who have often faced gods. Here Ulysses refers to old battles between men and gods, as told in the Greek mythology. According to Greek legend, Ulysses and his comrades strove with gods during the war between Greece and Troy, when the Gods themselves took rides in the contest, and doing Ulysses’s heroic journey back to Greece when he had to face great perils because he had angered Poseidon, the God of the Sea. The poet says that, death is power, the spirit of working and efforts come to an end when a man faces death, but a man should always do virtues and avoid troubling others. His actions will remain after his death. They will out live him. We should not do anything against Gods, but achieve some unusual. This is the honour of old age to face troubles and to yield something great to be remembered after the death.

    Lines

    The light begins to twinkle from the rocks ---------Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends;
    Explanation

    In these lines the poet tells us that although Ulysses and his friends are nearing the end of their lives, still for them there is a time to go and to find a New World. Ulysses tells his friends that the sun of their lives is going to set while the long day is going to an end. The moon is also rising this shows that night i.e. death is fast approaching. Still there is some time to go out and seek a New World. He means to say that they should not worry if they have become old.

    The poet describes the sight of an evening. The days are losing its light. The moon is sailing in the sky. We can hear the sounds of the wave that are striking against the seashore. Come on my friends. It is never late to discover a New World. This is the evening of our lives yet we are in a position to explore a New World to be immortal after our death. The poet creates in sense of self confidence in his men and encouraged them to not to be disappointed to their old evenings of life, but to yield a New World.
    Lines

    Tis not too late to seek a newer world ----------- Of all the western stars, untill I die.
    Explanation

    In these lines, Ulysses urges his companions to come along with him, sit in order in the boat and start the voyage of discovery. He wants to set out on a journey of discovery with great confidence because it is his firm believe that it is not too late to find a New World. Therefore he asks his comrades to drive the oars with power and might because the sea looks dangerous as the noisy waves are rising ferociously. Ulysses is here conscious of the perils supposed to be created in the way by the sea God, Poseidon whom they had angered in the Trojan Wars. He tries to reassure them that they will overcome all the obstacles since he is determined to sail beyond the Western bank and touch the happy Isle before he dies. This thing shows that Ulysses is an adventurous person who has unquenchable thirst for knowledge and has a passion for discovery.

    Through the symbolic character of Ulysses, Tennyson wants to evoke the spirit of adventure and unsatiable thirst for knowledge. He wants to convince us that each and every minute of life is very vital and one must struggle ceaselessly against heavy odds following the motto:

    “To strieve, to seek, to find, and not to yield.”
    Lines

    Tho’ much is taken, much abides, and tho’ -------------To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
    Explanation

    In these lines, Ulysses says to his comrades that although time has taken away many things from them but many things remain with them. They still possess courage and hope. They are still very brave.

    He says that no doubt, they have lost a great deal of strength and energy but still they have much strength and powers to accomplish heroic deed. Of course they do not possess that strength and energy which they possessed in the past and used to perform deeds of bravery and accomplish great tasks.

    Ulysses wants to say that in spite of being old, exhausted and physically feeble, they still possess some very remarkable qualities. In old age, a man has experience, knowledge and treasure of wisdom. He says that his mariners can perform memorable deed only if they take courage and struggle jointly.

    “Lighter is the task when many share the toil.”

    - Homer

    He says that they have strong hearts and high aims. There is unity of thought and action among them. Temperamentally they are one. So, they must struggle relentlessly and ceaselessly to discover a New World, to gain fresh knowledge and experience and not to acknowledge defeat. Some one has rightly said:

    “Defeat should never be a source of discouragement, but rather a fresh stimulus.”

    Through the symbolic character of Ulysses Tennyson wants to inspire the old, weak and exhausted people who can accomplish some great task even in old age. Action is life and inaction is death. So, one must continue his struggle against heavy odds till the last breath of life.
    Endymion
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 6
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled Endymion, composed by John Keats.
    About the Poet

    John Keats is one of the finest English poets. In spite of living only for twenty-six years, he contributed a lot to English Poetry. His poems are spirited and lively. His personal life was a tale of sorrow and bereavement, but his keen observant eye made him an admirer of nature, which is fully reflected in his poems.
    About the Poem

    Endymion is poem of great beauty. In this poem John Keats has expressed his conception of beauty and has given a unique definition of beauty. According to Classical Mythology Endymion was a beautiful youth with whom moon Goddess fell in love and on whom she induced a perpetual sleep in order to kiss him without his knowledge.
    Lines

    A thing of beauty is a joy forever --------------- Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breating
    Explanation

    “Beauty is a divine gift.”

    - J. Seigell

    In these oft-quoted famous opening lines of the poem, Keats is giving vent to his views on the concept of beauty and its influence on human life. He believes that an object of rare and real beauty communicates to human soul the message of lasting joy and eternal relief. Beauty is immortal like truth; it never dies and fades. The charm of a lovely object is unaffected by time. This charm goes on increasing with the flight of time.

    The poet says that beauty always remains a constant source of peace and joy. It has a refreshing, soothing and healthy impact on human life. It will keep a quiet and shady place for us and induce a sound sleep keeps us healthy and enables us to breathe freely.

    The poet wants to say that life is full of pains and sufferings; still we cling to it because of the compensations offered to us in some form of beauty. Thus the presence of beautiful objects around us is an eternal source of comfort and happiness.

    “Beauty is truth, truth beauty, that is all,

    Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.”
    Lines

    Therefore, on every marrow, we are wreathing -------- Some shape of beauty moves away the pall
    Explanation

    “Beauty moves away the pall from our dark spirits.”

    In these lines, Keats gives vent to his strong romantic faith that a real and rare objects of beauty have the power to make us forget our sorrows and griefs as they take us away from the world of bitter realities into the world of imagination.

    Therefore, Keats says that an every day we wreathe a flowery band in order to join ourselves with the earth, which is an unattractive and unhappy place. In his famous novel Thomas Hardy, an eminent Victorian novelist and poet says that this world is a Blighted Star meaning that this world is full of difficulties, hardships, troubles and griefs. Man can never be happy in this problem-plagued World. John Keats expresses the same ideas but with a difference. And it is beauty, which makes all the difference.

    According to Keats the world is an unattractive, place full of griefs and troubles. There is shortage of men and women of good character and noble thoughts. Darkness is prevailing every where. So, life is full of sorrow, disappointment and disease. But in spite of all this, some shape of beauty, whether in nature, human history or literature removes the darkness from the world. Beauty dispels darkness, beauty makes us happy; beauty gives us courage to bear the difficulties and hardships of life and take interest in the world.

    In these thought-provoking lines Keats describes the realities of the world but at the same time he does not forget beauty which makes a person forgetful of his griefs and worries. Not doubt beauty removes the pall from our dark spirits.
    Lines

    And such too is the grandeur of the dooms ---------- Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.
    Explanation

    In these concluding lines, Keats gives vent to his strong romantic faith that real objects of beauty, whether in nature, human history or literature, have the power to make us forget our sorrows and griefs as they take us away from the world of bitter realities into the world of imagination.







    He refers to various shapes of beauty, which please us and make us forgetful of our griefs and worries. He says that the grand deaths and the splendid destinies we have imagined for the brave heroes of history are also beautiful because they too inspire us to deeds of nobility and fortitude. Similarly, works of art and literature created over centuries are also a thing of beauty. All lovely trails which we have read or heard and beautiful objects of art are permanent source of endless joy. These tales give us great pleasure and we forget the depressions and agonies of life. Thus all these visions of beauty are like an endless fountain which gives an immortal drink to our thirsty souls.

    In the concluding lines, Keats says that beauty is something unearthly. It is being showered upon mankind from the heaven like a Divine blessing.

    “Beauty is a conopy for the suffering souls.”

    - Trolope

    Say Not the Struggle Naught Availeth
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 7
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled Say Not the Struggle Naught Availeth, composed by Arthur Hugh Clough.
    About the Poet

    He is a great poet but known and admired more for his friendship with a greater poet and educationist, Mathew Arnold and for his support to Florence Nightingale.
    About the Poem

    This poem teaches the moral lesson of inflicting courage, ceaseless struggle and sunny optimism of hope and aspiration. The poet through various images conveys a great message that without struggle, man cannot accomplish anything really great in this world. Struggle is the key to success in human life. It is rightly said:

    “All honour to those who try.”
    Lines

    If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars ------------And, but for you, possesses the field.
    Explanation

    In the lines given for elucidation the poet emphasizes the fact that hope and fear are part of human nature. Hope and apprehension are equally reasonable and hope is more likely to be beneficial we should keep the ray of hope lit in our hearts, and at the same time trying to achieve our goal. Only such positive approach can help us in conquering the enemy and changing the things for betterment. The poet uses the symbol of the battlefield by referring to two kinds of soldiers. Those who are chicken hearted are easily overcome with fear, on the contrary, those soldiers who are filled with courage and boldness are determined to fight till the last drop of their blood, eventually makes them accomplish their mission.
    The Seven Ages of Man
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 8
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem Seven Ages of Man, composed by William Shakespeare. Seven Ages of Man is a speech chosen from one of William’s Shakespeare’s comedies As You Like It.
    About the poet

    William Shakespeare was an English dramatist and poet, considered to be the greatest of all writers. Shakespeare was not only a writer and poet, but also an actor who devoted his life to the theatre.
    About the Poem

    This poem is one of the best known passages from Shakespeare’s work. This speech is delivered by Amiens in act III, scene VIII of the play As You Like It. Amiens is one of the group of noblemen leading a life of exile with Dukes in the forest of Arden.
    Lines

    And all the men and women merely players ----------- His act being seven ages. At first the infant.
    Explanation

    In the opinion of the poet man’s life on earth is like a big drama, in which men and women play their parts before their death. Man has to play many parts before their death Man has to play many parts and his life has been divided into seven parts.

    This world is just like a stage of a theatre. All persons being players are given different roles. Every individual plays a definite role during his life, which normally consists of seven parts or acts.

    In order to make his meaning clear, he makes a comparison of life with the stage. The first stage of a man is being an infant i.e. when he enters in this world and makes his exist in this stage of world as a baby.
    Lines

    Mewling and puking in the nurse’arms --------- Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
    Explanation

    Shakespeare says that each human being performs seven parts in this small drama on the stage of the world. He makes his entry as a baby who is fully dependent upon others. This stage ends when the infant grows into a school child. Shakespeare describes him as a boy having a face fresh like morning, with his bag hanging on his side, walking appropriately to school. In the beginning he does not like going to school but gradually his thinking changes. When time passes onwards the schoolboy transformed into a youngster. He is not an adult yet and due to lack of maturity, he indulges in infatuations.
    Lines

    Made to his mistress’ eyebrow; then a soldier ---------- Even in the cannon’s mouth; and then, the justice,
    Explanation

    As a lover the man composes poems about the eyebrows of his lover, and then came the fourth stage of his life, in which man makes his appearance on this World’s stage as a soldier. He utters wrong oath and develops a beard like that of a leopard. He becomes mad after vain and transitory fame. He becomes wild and haughty and readily picks up quarrels with anybody. He becomes a young soldier ready to fight and defend his country. He fights with a spirit of competition. He is ready to sacrifice his life for his country. Being a young man, he looses temper very quickly. He is even ready to face the canons he is a brave soldier. So he is seeking bubble reputation. In the next role of his life the man becomes an agent of doing justice.
    The Solitary Reaper
    Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context – Poem 9
    Reference

    The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled The Solitary Reaper, composed by William Words Worth.
    About the Poet

    Williams Words Worth is a poet who has developed his own immensely valuable theories concerning poetry. This is the reason why he possesses a unique and artificial style. His work shows his life long love for natural beauty, which gives hi the title Poet of Nature.
    About the Poem

    This poem relates to an incident, which deeply inspired the poet when he was walking alone through the barren hills of Scotland. He was fascinated by the sweet voice of a girl, who was singing a song in her native language.

    Lines

    Behold her, single in the field ---------------- Is overflowing with the sound
    Explanation

    In the above lines, which are the opening lines of the poem, the poet discloses one event of his personal experience. He tells us how enchanted he felt to see a mountain girl reaping and singing all alone in the field. He asks his companion to stop and see the young girl working alone in the field. The poet asks his companion either to stop or to pass silently, without disturbing the lovely reaper.

    The poet was profoundly fascinated by the bewitching melody and her voice left an everlasting and indelible impression on the mind of the poet. He invites his readers to listen to that melodious voice. The poet found the voice of the girl scattered all over the deep valley. The deep valley is filled to overflowing with the rich straw of the music.
    Lines

    No Nightingale did ever chaunt ------------- Among the farthest Hebrides.
    Explanation

    In these lines, poet says that the musical notes of the young singer are symmetrical to the thrilling songs of the Nightingale and the Cuckoo. They were far sweeter than the humming of birds and impressed the heart deeply. The sweet melody appeals to the tired travelers of the Arabian Desert, who need relaxation after a long and monotonous journey. The voice leaves a deeper impact than the song sung by the Cuckoo birds. It gives more than just breaking the serenity and tranquility of the lonely seas.

    In these lines the poet makes the competition of Solitary Reaper to the sweetest songs of Nightingale and Cuckoo birds simply to express his liking for her lovely song. The song echoes in the whole valley. He impressed the poet deeply. He therefore, compares her voice with that of sweet birds. It has magnificent effect on the poet. It is flight of his imagination.
    Lines

    Will no one tell me what she sings? ------------- That has been, and may be again!
    Explanation

    In these lines the poet tells us what song the lonely girl is singing. First of all, he thinks that perhaps it is some sad song, concerning some unhappy events as wars etc, which happened long ago. Or, the poet thinks, the highland girl is singing a song about some ordinary matter of daily life. It may be some natural sorrow, loss or pain, which has happened in the past, or is likely to be happening in the future.

    In this stanza the poet puts a question whether any body could tell him as to what this girl was singing. The poet is going to make some guess work in this connection. It is also appearing that she was singing a song as if making a complaint to some body or is pointing towards something very old or a battle that happened in the past. It may also be common day affair. The poet is ignorant of the theme of the song because she was singing in unknown language. So he does not understand that song.
    Lines

    Whate’er the theme, the Maiden sang --------- Long after It was hear no more.
    Explanation

    In these lines the poet tells us how he felt when he left the place. He tells us that although he could not understand the actual subject matter of the lovely girl’s sweet song, it seemed to have no ending. At this time she kept on bending over her sickle. The poet listens to her song for quite a long time At last he was overjoyed. Then he climbed over the hill. But as he went away he could still draw pleasure form the memory of the song, which he had heard from the lovely reaper. The poet tells us that for a long time afterwards he remembered that song and enjoyed it in imagination.

    In this closing stanza of poem, the poet says that the song sung by this unmarried young girl was sung in such a strain manner as it should never end. He says that he could not forget it with the passage of time. It flashes before his eyes and refreshes him even when he had left the place and could hear her voice no more, the haunting melody of the Highland girl still filled his heart.


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