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    Reference to Context from Prose

    Reference to Context from Prose


    Please select a chapter to view its reference to context.

    * Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb
    * Pakistan and The Modern World
    * Reflections from the Re-Awakening East
    * The World As I See It
    * The Devoted Friend

    .................................................. ...................................

    Reference to the Context – Chapter 1

    The lines given for contextual explanation are an extract from the play entitled Twenty Minutes with Mrs Oakentubb, written by Frank Arthur.
    About the Playwright

    In English literature, Frank Arthur is known as a novelist and a playwright. He has the quality to present suspense skillfully. The readers remain captivated till the end, while reading his novels.
    About the Story

    Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb is a powerful drama based on the traditional theme of revenge. It is notable for its skilful manipulation of plot compact with suspense and thrill culminating into a sensational gruesome murder.

    A certain Mrs. Judy Oakentubb, a reckless woman corrupted by the evils of high society, to avoid a head on collision with a lorry, drives her car onto the pavement killing two pedestrians. She lies before the magistrate and saves her neck with only eighteen months in a comfortable jail. But she is hunted out by a certain man in the waiting room of a country railway station. He is the husband of the woman and father of the child mercilessly killed by the lady. During the course of a twenty-minutes conversation, the man tries and succeeds in proving his point that what Mrs. Oakentubb did was not any chance or accident but a deliberate heartless murder. He kills her and takes his revenge.

    “Revenge is a kind of wild justice.” - Francis Bacon

    “You and I are there ------------------------- and I go mine.”

    Here in these lines, Mrs Oakentubb is exchanging her views with the man in the waiting room. She is reflecting upon chance and casual meetings. According to her, we meet thousands of people by chance in our lifetime. They are all strangers to us. They come into our life for a short while and disappear forever once again. We meet people walking in the street, standing behind in the queues and sitting to the theatre. But we forget them the next day and never see them again.

    The man agree with the lady but he points out that sometimes one of these chance and casual meetings may prove very important and may even change our life completely. The lady does not agree with the man because she never had such an experience in life. The man proves it by describing one of his own half a minute brief meeting with a Korean girl which changed his life completely.

    “But man never violates the laws without suffering the consequences sooner or later.”

    - Lydia Child

    “I had been wounded --------- I wanted to die any way.” or

    “The pain was much worse --------- and the courage to live.”

    Here, in these lines, the man is describing one of his own experiences to the lady in the waiting room. He is trying to prove that sometimes one of the chance and casual meetings with strangers may prove very significant to a man and may even change his life completely.

    He describes one of his experiences during the Korean-American war. He was seriously injured. He was aching with unbearable pains. He was lying on a stretcher waiting for an ambulance to go to hospital. But he wanted to die because he had no interest and no purpose left in life. His wife and daughter had been killed in a road accident, and he was fed up with his miserable lonely life. Due to severe pain, the wounded soldier fainted. After a few moments, he regained consciousness, he found a little Korean girl bending over him and watching him with sympathy. She did not utter a single word. She simply gave a kind smile and the man responded with a grateful smile. This brief and speechless and silent meeting lasted for a few moments only but it changed his life completely. After the meeting, he wanted to live, he had got an aim and purpose. He had got the strength and courage to live. In fact, the Korean girl had reminded him of his own daughter and he had made up his mind to take revenge from the lady who had crushed his wife and daughter under the wheels of her car.


    “She had a choice ----------- and she is living today.” or

    “You know the road ------------ it wasn’t deliberate murder.”

    Here, in these lines, the man character called He in the story is describing to Mrs. Oakentubb the situation in which she killed his wife and daughter. He says that Mrs. Oakentubb was coming from a cocktail party and she was over drunk. She had a bet with her vicious friends. She had wagered five pounds that she could drive from “Stainthorpe Cross” to the coast in less than fifteen minutes – a distance that could not be covered in less than half an hour. More over, it was a built–up area. The road was very busy and had many bends and blind corners. It was very hazardous and criminal to drive so fast for such a trifling matter.

    The man is trying to prove that what Mrs. Oakentubb did was in no way an accident but it was a clear case of deliberate murder. In a accident there is an element of chance and things are beyond one’s control. She had a choice, she could kill herself or she could drive her on the footpath and kill two innocent pedestrians. The lady argues in her defense but the man talks her down. In the end, she tries to play a trick, which fails, and the man kills her and avenges the death of his wife and daughter.

    “I call it murder! -------------- and never seeing them again.”

    Here, in these lines, the man called He in the story is trying to establish the charge of murder upon the lady. He reminds her that she saved here life at the cost of the life to two innocent people. She avoided a head-on-collision with the lorry by driving her car onto the footpath and upon two innocent pedestrians. It was not an accident because she could save them if she wanted to. But she did not try to save them because they were nothing to her. He also reminds her of notion that chance meetings have no significance. Therefore also, his wife and daughter did not attract her interest and attention. The man keeps on repeating that his wife and daughter were brutally murdered. Because in an accident, there is always the probability of a chance but htheway Mrs. Oakentubb killed his wife and daughter could not be considered as an accident. Also, his wife and daughter had not seen her before the accident took place, if so, they could not make an effort to save their lives.

    These lines are significant because here the man tries to arouse the conscience of the lady and force her to admit her guilt.

    “ I have’t -------------------- painful way.” or

    “She has had her punishment ----------------But she has had her punishment.” or

    “To execute justice -----------------------Tonight.”

    Here, in these lines, Mrs. Oakentubb is trying to defend herself and redeem her crime by stating that she had already been punished for what she had done. She repeatedly admits that it was criminal on he part to drive so fast in a build-up area. It was also foolish of her to do so far a trifling matter- a small bet. But she insistently says that she got her due punishment. She served a sentence of eighteen months in a jail.

    But the man does not agree with her and says that she did not get the punishment she deserved. According to him only eighteen months in the comfortable prison can not be adequate punishment for taking two lives. What she had done was a clear deliberate cruel murder and she deserved a capital punishment for this. He says that he is certain that if she is allowed to live in this world, she will once again start attending cocktail parties.. He tells her that he is going to render real justice by giving her the punishment for her crimes. He will not wait for a long time to render justice. He will kill that heartless woman that very night. He will take his revenge by killing her in the most painful manner.

    “Our meeting is almost over -------- to keep you amused.” or

    “Confess to me that you loved it -------- your spine all the time.”

    Here, in these lines, the male protagonist of the play is trying to give to the lady some moments of relief from the ordeal of nervous tension she was in when she realized that the man had founded her out.

    The man tells her that it was just a chance that they were meeting each other, going to the same place and waiting for the same train. Their meeting, which lasted for twenty minutes was over as the train had been signaled. He pretends that to pass these twenty minutes, he told her a story about a certain lady, Mrs. Oakentubb. He asks her if she enjoyed the story because he told the story to amuse and entertain her. He says that he could have spent this time in looking at her but it might not have been a source of pleasure for her. He says that in order to keeps her interest alive, he has told her an interesting and significant story because he knows that women are generally interested in pleasant stories. The important task for men is to please women.

    Later, he hardens his attitude and forces her to admit that she enjoyed the story as he marked little twinkles of joys on her face. But the lady declines having enjoyed it. On the contrary she felt horrified because the story was partly true.

    “All the time ---------------- what ever I am doing.” or

    “I can see it now ------------what I have done.” or

    “Kill me--------------I cannot endure.”

    Here, in these, lines, Mrs. Oakentubb is describing what she call the ordeal of her punishment as having before her eyes the picture of what she had done.

    The man has by this time made it clear to the lady that she is the same woman, Mrs. Oakentubb and he is the husband of the woman and father of the child she crushed under the wheels of her car. He has already proved to the lady that what she did was not an accident but a deliberate heartless murder. The lady has become sure that her life is in the balance and there is no way out. In a desperate condition, she tries to play a trick, she pretends before the man that she has been suffereing from a painful ordeal. She always has before her eyes he scene of that event – his wife and daughter lying in a pool of blood. The scene runs before her eyes what ever she is doing and wherever she is going. She can see it more clearly that she can see any thing else. She also pretends that she is fed-up with it and she cannot suffer it any more. She begs him to kill her and remove that picture form before her eyes. The man for a moment believes her and decides to let her live because to kill her would be merciful, as he wanted to kill her in the most merciless manner. But the next moment he discovers her cleverness and his own folly and shoots her to death. Pakistan and the Modern World

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    Reference to the Context – Chapter 2


    The given lines have been extracted from Pakistan and the Modern World, a fine example of oratory and a true chronicle of history. It is in fact a marvelous piece of speech delivered by the Quaid-e-Millat, Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, at the Kansas University in 1950 when the beloved leader paid a state visit to the U.S.A.
    About the Speaker

    Liaquat Ali Khan supported Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah during the crucial years of Muslim struggle for the birth of Pakistan. In 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of the Muslim homeland. He was a great patriot, who had deep compassion for human sufferings. He was awarded an honorary degree at the University of Kansas, USA for his remarkable services to his nation and to the cause of freedom and democracy.
    About the Speach

    According to the people and government of the United States, Liaquat Ali Khan, in this speech wants to acknowledge and thank them for the conferment of an honorary degree upon him. Since Pakistan was then not yet three years old, he thought it proper to introduce Pakistan to them. Befitting the occasion, he also thought it fit to describe the causes and the benefits of the division of vast sub continent and the creation of Pakistan. He describes the religious, social and economic differences with the Hindus, which forced the Muslims to demand a separate homeland for themselves. Finally he exhorts the West to held in the economic freedom and political stability of Asia. He also inspires the people of Pakistan to work harder at the double pace in order to catch up with the advance nation safeguard their independence and achieve their rightful and honorable place the4 the world.
    “Progress and freedom, far from consisting in change, depends on memory. Those who can not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
    ____________ George Santayana

    “As the day -------------- minority.” or
    “Long experience -------------change of masters.” or
    “But since --------------------- Eclipsed.”

    Here, in these historical lines, our veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is advocating the cause of the Muslims minority against the dominating majority of the Hindus in the undivided India on the eve of independence from the British rule.
    He says that when the time of freedom from the British rule drew at hand, it became more and more crystal clear that the Muslims were not going to enjoy the real fruits of freedom. On the contrary, they were afraid that they would be forced to live as a permanent group of defeated and subjected minority. Thus, freedom from the foreign rule would mean to the Muslims not freedom but only a change of the ruling hand. He draws this conclusion on the basis of their age-old experience testified by history since Muslims had been living with the Hindus for many centuries.
    Liaquat Ali Khan also points out the fact that difference of religion between the two nations was not the only cause of division of India. The Muslims had a number of very serious differences with the Hindus nation such as difference of culture, ideology of life, social system, economic system and so on. The Muslims were monotheists and the Hindus believed in more than one God. They believed in caste system while the Muslims believed in equality of all men. The Muslims rightly feared that the Hindus majority would deny then basic human rights and treat them like slaves. They would have to live in the undivided India as a “perpetual political minority” having no hope, no respect and no future.
    Liaquat Ali Khan is here trying to give vent to the genuine doubts and apprehensions. Muslims had about their political and economic future had they lived with the Hindus in the undivided India particularly after independence from the British rule.
    “Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves.”

    “It was for these reasons ------------------- at that time.

    Here in these pithy and powerful lines, our veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is trying to apprise the American people of the reasons for and exigencies behind the Muslims’s demand for a separate home of their own.
    “We wanted a home,
    Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
    There is no place like home
    All must have a home of their own.”
    - J.H. Payne
    He describes the differences of religion, culture and economic institutions, which had made it difficult for the Muslims to continue to live with the Hindus. Above everything, it was the fear of being reduced into a perpetual political minority that forced the Muslims to demand a separate homeland for themselves. According to him this demand was very genuine and reasonable as it was in the interest of both the Muslims and the Hindus. Above all, it was in the interest of the World peace. But Liaquat Ali Khan regrets that the Hindus leaders apposed this because it was against their dream of a greater India.
    “How does it feel
    To be without a home
    Like a complete unknown
    Like a rolling stone?”
    - R.A. Zimmerman
    The beloved leader is here leading the case of the Muslims and is justifying their demand on both human and geo-political grounds. Liaquat Ali Khan says:
    “We believed then and we believe now that the demand of the Muslims in British India to have a separate state of their own was, both on human and geo-political grounds, a very reasonable demand.”

    “For us to be undemocratic ---------- Demand for Pakistan.”

    Here in these searching lines, our beloved leader is trying to visualize the ethical basis and ideological grounds, which inspired the foundation of the new state of Pakistan. He says that Pakistan is based upon the belief in God, democracy, justice and peace. Muslims of South Asia demanded a separate homeland for themselves because they wanted to practice their faith and their believe.
    “Man is by his constitution a religious animal.”
    - Edmund Burk
    Mr. Khan emphasizes that our people did not have to learn or acquire these beliefs, as they were latent in the very ideology. They demanded a new state because they wanted to practice these beliefs free from the close competition of dominating Hindu majority.
    According to Mr. Khan Muslims cannot think of overlooking democracy and ignoring human rights. Similarly, they cannot submit to tyranny or aggression because this will mean denying the very ideals of Pakistan. The father of the nation also said:
    “You are free, you are free to go to your mosques and to your temples, or to any place of worship in this state of Pakistan.”
    - Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

    “What are the demands ---------------- Great purpose.”

    Here in these pithy and powerful lines, the political pedagogue and stateman, Liaquat Ali Khan is trying to visualize the duties and responsibilities of a free people who have achieved their freedom after a great deal of struggle and sacrifice.
    “Liberty means responsibility. That is why most people dread it.”
    - G.B Shaw
    He asserts that it is the duty of all the free people in the World to maintain and safeguard their won feedom first. This according to hims is not selfishness or narrow-mindedness. He adds that if they fail in this duty, they desecrate and disgrace the piety of freedom. He exhorts the Muslims to be alert and watchful in order to keep their hard-earned freedom safe and secure. He also urges them to work hard at the double pace to achieve prosperity and strengthen the foundation of freedom. He emphasizes that today freedom has no real significance for the common people if it does not also mean freedom from want, ignorance and disease.
    Liaquat Ali has here tried to give a new meaning and a new interpretation to the concept of freedom as viewed in the context of the fast changing conditions of the present day World.
    “The Condition upon which God has given liberty is eternal vigilance.”
    - I.P. Curran

    “Our ancient steadfast faith ------------- world peace itself.”

    Here in these powerful pithy lines, the veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is describing the political, ideological and economic position of Pakistan as a newly independent state of Asia and is prescribing the formula of a happy marriage of faith and technology for rapid progress.
    “Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.”
    - Albert Einstein
    He asserts that our old and firm faith is a source of great strength in this troubled period of human history. But he emphasizes that faith alone is not enough if we want to claim our rightful and honorable place in the World. We must also acquire the valuable knowledge of science and technology. He says that only a happy combination of science with the leading powers of scientific knowledge and modern World. This is the dictate of phase of progress and we can not hold the clock back. Liaquat Ali Khan, a true Muslim and a die hard patriot is trying to set the Muslims on the rails of modern science, the only way to progress and honorable existence in the World.
    “Science without conscience is the death of the soul and leads to greed and pride.”
    - Francois Rabelais

    “We conceive the role ----------------- if at all.”

    Here in these prophetic lines, the veteran leader and stateman, Liaquat Ali Khan is trying to define and determine the role of the Western World in the present day political situation of the World.
    According to him the West should demonstrate their broadminded approach and assist the newly independent states of Asia and Africa in their political stability and economic progress. It is the moral and the human duty of the rich and advanced nations to hold in the development of the poor and backward people. This is necessary because they themselves can not enjoy the fullest fruits of their own progress when more that half the World remains backward. The World can not be called truly civilized unless the light of modern knowledge of science reaches the door of every house in the World.
    “The purpose of human existence is not ease or comfort but to kindle a light of joy in the dark World.”
    - C.J. Jung
    Liaquat Ali Khan is here exhorting the people of America and Europe to realize their duty and help the poor people in the name of humanity and for the sake of the world peace.
    “Heal the sick, cleans the lepers, raise the fallen, cast out devil, freely you have received, freely you give to others.”
    - The Bible

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    Reference to the Context – Chapter 3


    These lines have been extracted from a thought – provoking lesson of our prose text Reflections from the Re-Awakening East, written by Bertrand Russelll.
    About the Author

    Bertrand Russelll was an outstanding mathematician, writer and thinker of our time. He is best known for introducing scientific attitude in politics and sociology. He was a sincere advocate of technical aid to Asia.
    About the Essay

    In this lesson Russelll has tried to present a historical study and analysis of the reemergence of the East as a powerful influence in the World after centuries of subjugation and exploitation by the Western Imperialism. He praises the people of the East and criticizes the people of West. He admires the Muslims of Spain, who had a brilliant culture, at that time when the Christian Europe was sunk in barbarism. He has expressed his hopes and apprehensions as regards to what Asia should and what it will do after it has achieved both its political and economic independence. He also desires that the East will use its power to promote peace, justice and happiness in the World.
    “Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves.”
    - Abraham Lincoln

    “The supermacy of the East -------------- a brilliant culture.”

    Here in these lines, Russelll is presenting the invariable process of history in which power has been changing hands between the East and West. After the down fall of the Roman Empire and the destruction of the German Empire, leadership in power and the culture passed into the hands of the East which came to be ruled by the Muslims and Chinese between 7 and 10 century A.D.
    “Progress depends on memory. Those who can not learn from their past (history) are condemned to repeat it.”
    - George Santayana
    The author states that the Muslims established their superiority to the Europeans not in warfare but also in the field of science, philosophy, poetry and the arts. Both the Muslims and the Chinese were enjoying a glorious period of culture and civilization during this period. This was the time when the Europeans were living a totally barbarous life. Russelll deplores that Europeans out of heir sheer narrow mindedness call this period “The Dark Age.” But actually it was only Christian Europe that was sunk in darkness because the “Mohammadan World” including Spain flourished with a glorious culture.
    “Study the past, if you want to devine the future.”
    - Confucius

    “There are somethings ---------- growth of industrialism.” or
    “It is useless ---------------------independence.”
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    The above lines have been taken from that part of the chapter where the author has discussed the part played by science and technology in the rapid progress of the nations of the world. At the same time he extremely opposes the unfair use of science and adulation and monopoly of mechanization in human society.
    While he disapproves of science and machinery as bad and undesirable on account of being cruel to man and hostile to beauty, he at the same time belie4ves that they are vital for progress and survival in the modern world. This is evident from the fact that those who lag behind in industrial progress are left poor and backward and thus have difficulty in preserving their independence at home and fail to enjoy and honorable position in the world. He refers to the amazing advancement of Great Britain in the early 19th century and that of the U.S.A. and Russia in the present century. These states enjoyed supremacy by virtue of their complete and virtual control over industrial production.
    “He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils: for time is the greatest innovator.”
    - Francis Bacon

    “The most sinister --------------- on the side of peace?”

    Here, in these lines, Russell is giving his opinion about the potential and probable use of scientific technique by the newly independent state of Asia. He warns the people of Asia that the worst and the most evil use of scientific knowledge has been in inventing horrible and destructive weapons of war. But he hopes that Asians will learn from the mistakes of the West and will use their new power of science and technology for peaceful purposes.
    “The most persistent sound that reverberates through men’s history is the heating of the war drums.”
    - Arthur Koestler
    He realizes that it is difficult to predict what Asia will do when it rises as a powerful influence in the world but he is definite as to what Asia should do to fulfil its responsibilities in the community of nations torn with wars and conflicts. This is in tune with the author’s belief that:
    “Wars should belong to the past, it should find no place on humanity’s agenda for the future.”
    - John Paul II

    “Modern cosmopolitanism --------------- Culture of the past.”

    Here in these lines, Russell is commenting on the evil aspect of science and machinery. Being an enlightened thinker, her appreciates science and machinery because they have given rise to a new culture, which is universal in quality as the life-style of the whole world, is conditioned by the modern inventions of science and technology.
    But the author laments that these two new elements of modern culture are being forced upon older cultures. By nature they prove cruelly more powerful since they have a tendency to destroy not only what is bad but also what is good and valuable in the culture of the past.
    “The greatest tragedy of science and technology is the slaying of the beauteous nature by an ugly machine.”
    - T.H. Huxley
    The result is that due to the decay of the older values of life, man has become selfish, materialistic and parochial. So Russelll admonishes the nations of the East against the harms and perils of misuse of science. He says that mechanization itself is not limit and its sole purpose should be nothing except provoking and enhancing human happiness, minimizing their suffering and creating a sound atmosphere for living. Lord Russelll devices a strongly condemns the undue importance and usage of scientific inventions that are likely to make life dull and colourless. Russelll also believes:
    “Science without conscience is the death of the soul and leads to greed and pride.”
    - Francois Rabelais

    “If human life ------------------ the simple joys of life.”

    “Ill fares the land to hastening ills a prey, where wealth accumulates, and men decay.”
    - Oliver Goldsmith
    Here, in these lines, Russell criticizing science and technology as cruelly powerful elements of modern scientific culture is suggesting ways and means to make modern life more pleasant and enjoyble.
    He advises that if we want our life to remain tolerable, we should not allow science and technology to dominate over all the departments of our life. According to him poetry, music, arts, love and simple joys of life were the important elements of our older culture. We must preserve them in our modern life at every cost because with them, our life is dull, dark and intolerable. The author believes that:
    “The purpose of human existence is not ease but to kindle a light of joy.”
    - Albert Einstein

    “Your independence --------------- Mistakes of the West.”

    “The love of liberty is the love of others; the love of power is the love of ourselves.”
    - William Hazlitt
    Here, in these lines, Russell is directly addressing the newly independent people of Asia and is giving them a valuable piece of advice also their future course of life. He points out that now when the world is divided into two rival blocks filled with bitter enmity, it is certain that the big powers are not going to interfere in the political stability and economic progress of the Asian countries. Thus the Asians would find it easy to safeguard their freedom. But it is also feared that once they rise as a great power they can develop a desire to exploit the backward people and threaten the independence of Europe. The Author believes that:
    “Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves.”
    - Abraham Lincoln

    Here, in these lines, Russell like a broad-minded pedagogue and a moral preacher is giving to the new democracies of Asia a valuable piece of advice also how they should use their power of science and technology.
    He desires that after becoming free, Asians have to play a positive role. They have to use their power to contribute to he happiness and promote the cause of justice in the world. The author hopes that the East will learn from the mistakes of the West and will help the poor and the backward in their freedom and progress rather than exploit them for their selfish purposes.
    Russell also hopes that Asia will prove this through their own examples that unless nations, rich and poor, learn to respect each other, there can be no peace and happiness in the world. The author believes that:
    “To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.”
    - Mother Teresa

    .................................................. .............................

    The World as I See It

    Reference to the Context – Chapter 4


    The passage given for contextual explanation is extracted from the lesson The World as I See It, written by Albert Einstein.
    About the Author

    Albert Einstein is generally regarded as the greatest mathematical physicist of the current century and one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was awarded the Noble Prize for Physics in 1921. He is bold and straightforward man and expresses his views freely and unhesitatingly. His work rests very little on laboratory work but more on theories and philosophies. His writings for the layman are few, but they include an introduction to the general theory of relativity. His writings demonstrate his admirable capability.
    About the Essay

    The World as I See It is an interesting essay in which Albert Einstein has expressed his personal views about the purpose and ideals of life; democracy and dictatorship; war and peace; mystery and religion.

    “What an extraordinay ------------------- Tie of sympathy.”

    In this particular passage Albert Einstein says that our position in this world is unusual. Man is mortal. We have come into this world for leading a very short life. What is the purpose of man’s creation? When we deliberate over this fundamental question we come to the conclusion that life is not purposeless. There is a purpose in life. As far as the practical life is concerned we live for our fellowmen. In the first place we live for those who are known to us personally and our happiness depends on their smiles and welfare. In the second place we live for those who are not known to us personally but a tie of sympathy binds us with them.

    “I am strongly drawn -------------- Physically and mentally.”

    In this thought-provoking passage Albert Einstein expresses his personal views on simple life. He strongly believes that one should lead a simple life as limple life is conducive to health and happiness. Plain life keeps a person fit physically and mentally. If a man leads a luxurious life, he has to run after worldly wealth and remains worried because he always thinks of earning more and more money by fair means or foul. Thus he has no peace of mind and peace of heart. His health deteriorates due to worries and cares. But if a man leads a simple life, he has no worries and cares and leads a pleasant, peaceful and contented life.
    Einstein also expresses his views on class differences which, he thinks, are contrary to justice and are based on force and compulsion. Thus we can say that he is strongly opposed to class differences and perhaps he wants to say that he is strongly opposed to class differences and perhaps he wants to say that these class differences must not exist in any human society. He really believes in equality and fraternity.

    “The ideals which have -------- Seemed to me contemptible.”

    In this particular passage Einstein has expressed his views on the ideals of his life. His ideals have been Truth, Goodness and beauty which have brightened up his ways of life and have given him a new courage to face the problems, difficulties and hardships of life with a smile.
    Beauty is truth, truth beauty __ that is all
    ye know on earth, and all ye need to know
    Thus we see that the ideals which Einstein cherishes, are high ideals of life. He loves these ideals because they give him spiritual pleasure. In other words these ideals give spiritual pleasure to every person who loves these ideals.
    He, then, talks about the sense of fellowship with man of like mind. He wants to say that life is colourless and meaningless if a man does not enjoy the company and fellowship of like minded people and if a person is not preoccupied with the objective, which is not attainable in the field of art and scientific research. We are really startled when Einstein says that property, outward success and luxury are the ordinary objects of human endeavor. We are at a loss to understand when he finally says than these objects have always seemed to him contemptible. But we are deliberate over the philosophical ideas; we come to the conclusion that Albert Einstein is right.

    “An autocratic system ------------- Succeeded by scoundrels.”

    In this passage Albert Einstein, expresses his views with reference to democracy and dictatorship. Condemning the autocratic system he says that it soon degenerates as it is always based on cruelty, oppression and force. It is an undeniable fact that people of low morality believe in force and in autocratic system cruel rulers, rule over the people with high-handedness. They do not care for the moral values and give no importance to the welfare of the people. Einstein believes that it is an invariable rule that intelligent cruel rulers are succeeded by people of low morality.
    In other words Einstein means to say that an autocratic system of government is not beneficial to the people because of the values. It is very difficult for people to breathe freely in dictatorship, as the people do not enjoy any kind of freedom.
    Einstein loves democracy and hates dictatorship. He is a humanist and wants to see each and every individual happy. So he wants that the rulers must rule the country with love so that the people may breathe freely and live happily.

    “War seems to me a mean-------- the schools and the press.”

    In this passage Albert Einstein expresses his views on war and peace. He says that war seems to him a mean and hateful thing. He would rather die than take part in such a hateful business. He hates war because he is humanist. He is fully aware of the fact that thousands of innocent people are killed mercilessly and purposelessly in the war. No doubt he hates war but does not hate human beings. He thinks that man is not blood-thirsty and the curse of war would have disappeared long ago if the sound sense of the nations had not been corrupted by political and commercial interests. He means to say that war break out because the commercial and political interest of various nations are involved.
    Einstein is a great lover of humanity. He believes that the highest purpose of a man’s life if to serve humanity and people must live in peace and tranquality. He wants to say that if nations ignore their commercial and political interests and if mankind learns a degree of mutual respect, this world will become a place of happiness and nations will not think of waging wars against each other. No doubt Einstein is a noble man and has noble ideas. He is not only a humanist but also a pacifist.

    “The fairest thing --------------- that engendered religion.”

    In this philosophical and thought-provoking passage Albert Einstein says that the experience of the mysterious objects given birth to art and science. Curiosity is the emotion, which is found in almost all persons but if there is a person who is devoid of curiosity and mystery, is just like a dead wood and a snuffed-out candle. It means that such a person can’t do any thing in the world. A snuffed-out candle is useless as it cannot brighten up the ways of the world and it cannot guide anyone. Similarly a person devoid of curiosity and mystery is of no help to any one. Einstein further says that it was the experience of mystery that gave birth of religion.
    In this passage Albert Einstein has expressed his views on religion and mystery without any mental reservation. He is a straightforward man and whatever he has experienced he has described it unhesitatingly. He rightly says that curiosity of man has led to the birth and growth of true art and true science. He has deliberated almost on every aspect of human life and has drawn certain conclusions with which he has acquainted us. We are greatly impressed by profound and philosophical thoughts, which he has expressed in this passage and we spontaneously utter that Einstein is a learned broad-minded, sagacious and straightforward man.
    “Mystery is Beautiful. It becomes more Beautiful when mixed with fear.”
    - Jesica Adams

    .................................................. ....................................

    Reference to the Context – Chapter 5


    The lines given for contextual explanation are an extract from the story entitled The Devoted Friend written by Oscar Wilde.
    About the Writer

    Oscar Wilde was one of the most elegant writers of the late nineteenth century. He argued that artistic considerations should be given first place in English Literature. He has worked on plays, novels and light comedies in English Drama.
    About the Story

    This story revolves around two friends Hugh and Hans. It brings to light the greed, selfishness and hypocrisy of Hugh, the miller and the devotion, innocence and integrity of little Hans. The miller keeps on focussing to the duties and responsibilities of a true and devoted friend, but his actions are contrary to his sayings. On the other hand, little Hans sacrifices his life for the sake of his friend. The moral behind the story is the dominantly repeated saying:
    “A friend in need is a friend indeed.”

    “When people are in trouble ----------I shall pay him a visit.”

    The above lines given for elucidation were spoken by the miller Hugh to his wife. It brings to light the theories of the miller about friendship, which he keeps on focussing to. This is one of those theories which enables him to act according to his own will and at the same time fulfil the duties of a so called friend. The saying also points out to the selfishness and hypocrisy of the miller. His hypothesis says that when some of your friend is facing hard times and is in difficulty, you should not bother him by visiting him. He says that such an act increases the distress and difficulty and keeping away is indeed a deed of sincere friendship. The situation in the story resembles to this very much. His friend Little Hans was in difficult times and needed help from sincere and good friends. Hans believed that the miller was his best friend and would certainly fulfill his responsibility. Instead, the miller escapes from his liability by proposing his theory about his sincere friendship.

    The lines given for contextual explanation are an extract from the play entitled The Silver Box, written by John Galsworthy.
    About the PlayWright

    John Galsworthy was one of the most outstanding and distinguished playwrights whose work reflects full sympathy for the hapless lower class. He was conscious of the sufferings and misfortunes of the poor working class. The writer often brings to light the social vices of injustice and exploitation in his literature.
    About the Play

    This play contains a bitter but realistic criticism on the decline of moral values in the British society. In this play, John Galsworthy has pointed out that wealth and high social status can buy every thing, even justice and equity. The playwright not only reveals the hidden scars on the face of society, but also brings to light the utter despair and degradation of common man.

    “Jones: (Stopping and twisting around.) Call this justice?---im off – justice!”

    The lines given for elucidation sheds light on the anger of Mr. Jones, which was flamed up by the biased attitude of the Magistrate. Jones shouts and demands the court to give him a fair trial. He says that he was being sent behind bars simply because of his poverty. He says that law must not discriminate between the rich and poor. The criminal act of Jack Barthwick should not be overlooked on account of his social status. To his surprise, the Magistrate takes no notice of his demand at all. The Magistrate certainly seems to be partial and influenced by Mr. Barthwick, MP. He did not even ask Jack Barthwick as to why he had stolen the purse of the lady. This saying of Jones reflects the opinionated approach of the Magistrate. It brings to knowledge the fact that the social rights of the poor working class were denied to them and court of law usually favored the rich.
    “Law grinds the poor rich men rule the law.”
    - Oliver Goldsmith

    .................................................. .................................

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