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    new_new FSC 2nd Year chapter No :13 | CURRENT ELECTRICITY

    FSC 2nd Year chapter No :13 | CURRENT ELECTRICITY

    TOPIC NO : 2


    A current source is an electrical or electronic device that delivers or absorbs electric current. A current source is the dual of a voltage source. The term constant-current sink is sometimes used for sources fed from a negative voltage supply. Figure 1 shows a schematic for an ideal current source driving a resistor load.

    In circuit theory, an ideal current source is a circuit element where the current through it is independent of the voltage across it. It is a mathematical model, which real devices can only approach in performance. If the current through an ideal current source can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit, it is called an independent current source. Conversely, if the current through an ideal current source is determined by some other voltage or current in a circuit, it is called a dependent or controlled current source. Symbols for these sources are shown in Figure 2.
    An independent current source with zero current is identical to an ideal open circuit. For this reason, the internal resistance of an ideal current source is infinite. The voltage across an ideal current source is completely determined by the circuit it is connected to. When connected to a short circuit, there is zero voltage and thus zero power delivered. When connected to a load resistance, the voltage across the source approaches infinity as the load resistance approaches infinity (an open circuit). Thus, an ideal current source, if such a thing existed in reality, could supply unlimited power and so would represent an unlimited source of energy.
    No real current source is ideal (no unlimited energy sources exist) and all have a finite internal resistance (none can supply unlimited voltage). However, the internal resistance of a physical current source is effectively modeled in circuit analysis by combining a non-zero resistance in parallel with an ideal current source (the Norton equivalent circuit). The connection of an ideal open circuit to an ideal non-zero current source does not represent any physically realizable system

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    (1) Cells ( primary as well as Secondary ) which convert chemical energy into electrical energy.

    (2) Electronic generator which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

    (3) Thermo-couples which convert heat energy into electrical energy.

    (4) Solar cells which convert sunlight directly into electrical energy.


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